Academic vs. Business Writing
The five primary differences between work and academic writing are
- Writing at work focuses on problem solving. Unlike academic writing
where you write to persuade your professor how much you know, at work you write
to help you perform your job. Primarily, you are trying to achieve a specific goal
and to complete a job task.
- Work-related writing targets multiple audiences with different perspectives.
In college our primary and, typically, only audience is our professor. Professors
approach student writing similarly. They want to read what you've written and they're
trying to determine if you've mastered the course content. The professor is also
an expert or authority on the subject matter. But, as an employee you may write
to many readers with varied backgrounds--some highly educated experts and some less
knowledgeable than you are. You will also write to people within and outside your
department and organization. These readers won't necessarily read what you've written
unless you persuade them your message is relevant and will help them perform their
jobs. You have to make your message relevant, clear, and easy to read.
- Writing at work may be read by unknown readers. At school, professors
rarely share students' writing with others, and students rarely target multiple
audiences. But, on the job, you not only target a primary reader but also secondary
and tertiary readers who may or may not be known to you. For example, your boss
(the primary reader) may decide to give your report to her boss (secondary reader)
who decides to pass it along to one of her employees (tertiary reader).
You always need to assume that others will read your documents, that photocopies could be mailed, and that copies of your documents could be filed for further use.
- Writing produced at work can be used indefinitely and can be used in legal
proceedings. While college papers have a limited life span (typically for
1 class), work documents can be filed and used indefinitely. Moreover, parts or
all of documents can be used out of context in situations unrelated to the original
scenario. Thus, work documents could be used in legal proceedings. You should word
your documents carefully to prevent them from being misused. Ultimately, you are
responsible for the document, and others can use parts or all of it to support their
claims in litigation.|
- The format for work documents varies greatly from the format for academic
documents. In school, you primarily write essays, research papers, lab
reports, etc. But you rarely write memos, letters, procedures, policies, or employee
evaluations--all common work documents. You need to become very comfortable with
different organizational patterns and different formats for your writing.
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